The Mutation Repair Systems:
A Major Problem for Macroevolution
The ultimate source of all variation from which natural
selection can operate is genetic mutations. Numerous cellular genetic
repair systems exist to ensure that mutational expression is extremely
rare. These repair systems pose major problems for evolution because
virtually all genetic innovations caused by base pair changes will be
corrected (and thus not expressed), or the cell itself will be destroyed.
If genetic repair systems were perfect, then all macroevolution clearly
would be impossible. These genetic repair systems argue against macroevolution,
at least as caused by the accumulation of mutations.
Sequatchie Valley Tennessee and Alabama: A Different
Emmett L. Williams and A. Jerry Akridge
The origin of Sequatchie Valley is viewed from a uniformitarian
approach. In contrast, the origin of the valley is proposed from a young
earth-Flood perspective. Also considered are the Tennessee River water
gap in Walden Ridge, Tennessee, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary
problem in the region and evidences of high-energy deposition on Walden
Ridge and Sand Mountain, Alabama.
Drifting Interpretations of the Kennedy Gravel
Peter Klevberg and Michael J. Oard
Poorly stratified deposits of coarse gravel cover Kennedy
Ridge and several other planation surfaces east of Glacier National
Park in north-central Montana, U.S.A., and adjacent Alberta, Canada.
These gravel deposits, commonly called “Kennedy drift” and
classified as glacial drift, are composed primarily of lithologies identical
to Belt Supergroup rocks observed in the Rocky Mountains immediately
to the west. In recent years, the Kennedy gravel has been described
as a series of tills containing paleosols documenting several glacial
and interglacial episodes over the course of approximately two million
years. Fabric measurements and paleomagnetic surveys have been taken
and the evidence interpreted in support of the multiple till interpretation.
However, these data are far from unequivocal, and alternative genetic
interpretations may be superior to the multiple till interpretation.
Is Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics
an Appropriate Example of Evolutionary Change?
Kevin L. Anderson
Evolutionists frequently point to the development of antibiotic
resistance by bacteria as a demonstration of evolutionary change. However,
molecular analysis of the genetic events that lead to antibiotic resistance
do not support this common assumption. Many bacteria become resistant
by acquiring genes from plasmids or transposons via horizontal gene
transfer. Horizontal transfer, though, does not account for the origin
of resistance genes, only their spread among bacteria. Mutations, on
the other hand, can potentially account for the origin of antibiotic
resistance within the bacterial world, but involve mutational processes
that are contrary to the predictions of evolution. Instead, such mutations
consistently reduce or eliminate the function of transport proteins
or porins, protein binding affinities, enzyme activities, the proton
motive force, or regulatory control systems. While such mutations can
be regarded as “beneficial,” in that they increase the survival
rate of bacteria in the presence of the antibiotic, they involve mutational
processes that do not provide a genetic mechanism for common “descent
with modification.” Also, some “relative fitness”
cost is often associated with such mutations, although reversion mutations
may eventually recover most, if not all, of this cost for some bacteria.
A true biological cost does occur, however, in the loss of pre-existing
cellular systems or functions. Such loss of cellular activity cannot
legitimately be offered as a genetic means of demonstrating evolution.