Toppling the Timescale
Part II: Unearthing the Cornerstone
John K. Reed
Creationists have addressed uniformitarianism, evolution,
and deep time as foundation blocks of the geological timescale, but
have failed to assess its cornerstone. That key principle is the assumption
that elements of the rock record represent global correlative synchronous
time periods. It is an assumption that dates to the earliest days of
modern stratigraphy, but one of questionable value in diluvial geology.
Our increasing knowledge of the rock record; of its local variations
in tectonic, hydraulic, sedimentary, and diagenetic environments makes
it unlikely that globally correlative synchronous time periods can be
readily and practically identified in the rocks.
Long-Distance Flood Transport of the Nenana Gravel
of Alaska—Similar to Other Gravels in the United States
Michael J. Oard
The origin and significance of the Nenana Gravel north of the Alaska
Range is documented. The Nenana Gravel possesses similarities to other
coarse gravels studied in the western United States, and even from the
Appalachian Mountains. The long-distance transport of these gravels
would have required large currents of high flow velocities. The necessity
of such currents challenges uniformitarian explanations and is more
readily explained within a Flood paradigm, mainly the Recessive Stage
of the Flood.
The Origin of Senescence and Death:
An Evolutionary Enigma
Aging, or senescence, can be described as a reduction
in the chance of survival and/or fertility of an organism over time.
Senescence is characterized by a decline in organ functions, ultimately
resulting in death. This may be caused by many mechanisms, such as inappropriate
redistribution of DNA over daughter cells after cell division and accumulation
of damage caused by, for instance, chemical radicals over a lifetime.
These mechanisms may indeed explain senescence, but they do not explain
the origin of senescence and death. Although many evolutionary theories
of aging provide explanations for the life history of an organism, they
again do not explain the origin of senescence and death per se. Consequently,
senescence remains largely an enigma to evolutionary biology. Complete
repair of damage and immortality are not impossible. Indeed the germ-cell
line is in essence immortal. The existence of single-cell organisms
demonstrates immortality indirectly as they give rise to descendants
by splitting into two nearly identical daughter cells, and there are
even some multicellular organisms that are allegedly immortal. I argue
that senescence and mortality are the result of less-than-optimal circumstances
causing immortality to become essentially impossible, because extrinsic
(from outside the organism) factors will cause death even in the presence
of perfect cellular repair mechanisms.
A Hypercane Deposit at Little Stave Creek,
Clarke County, Alabama, USA
Carl R. Froede, Jr.
Unique atmospheric conditions during and immediately following the Flood
have recently been postulated based on the results of numerical computer
modeling. This modeling suggests that the heating of the atmosphere
and oceans could have produced conditions suitable for the development
of super hurricanes, or “hypercanes.” Unfortunately, the
atmosphere provides no historic record of such events. However, proxy
records might be found in the rock record. In fact, it is probable that
hypercanes would have created large-scale tempestites (i.e., storm deposits)
across various portions of the continents while they were covered by
Floodwater. Such storm deposits occur across the United States Gulf
Coastal Plain. One such stratigraphic unit is the Gosport Sand Member
of the Lisbon Formation (Eocene), which extends across southwestern
Alabama. A Gosport Sand outcrop at Little Stave Creek in Clarke County
exhibits sedimentary evidence that it formed from a single massive hypercane
during the Middle Flood Event Division.
The Heavener Roadcut: Deltaic Environment or Flood
Mark W. Allen
The Hartshorne Formation in Oklahoma has been interpreted as being
deposited in various delta-type environments. A better explanation would
be that the strata were deposited in a catastrophic environment as illustrated
by cross-bedded sand units and a significant amount of plant material.
The plant material likely was derived from a floating forest, and its
fossil remnants are now found as upright tree casts and molds, along
with carbonaceous layers of plant debris and coal.
The Fungus Fossil Record:
A Major Problem for Darwinism
Fungi are complex life-forms that play a major role in modern ecology.
A wide variety of fungal types exists from microscopic yeasts to large
mushrooms. The estimated 100,000 species of fungi comprise approximately
one-quarter of the earth’s entire biomass. The fungus fossil record,
which is examined in this paper, does not provide evidence of neo-Darwinism
for the members of the Kingdom Fungi. As a result of this lack of evidence,
speculation by Darwinists has resulted in many conflicting theories
of fungus evolution, all unconstrained by fossil evidence.