45, Number 1
Toppling the Timescale
Part III: Madness in the Methods
John K. Reed
The chronology of the geologic timescale’s stratigraphic units has been defined by a variety of methods. Over the decades many have waxed and waned in popularity, but at present the most important ones are: (1) radiometric dating, (2) astronomical “tuning,” (3) magnetostratigraphy, and (4) biostratigraphy. Each of these methods assumes deep time and uniformitarianism rather than demonstrating them. Each also exhibits other specific flaws. These are commonly masked by the “shotgun approach” or the selective use of individual methods. But contrary to popular perception, the “shotgun approach” does not demonstrate the strength of overlapping independent, scientific methods, but instead exhibits a critical weakness—after decades of searching, no single absolute chronometer has been found. The frequent selective shuffling of methods, therefore, demonstrates the failure to attain a real chronology. Thus the absolute timescale (and its stages) rests on quicksand. It is not the concrete empirical history commonly presented; it is instead the unverified historical saga of the worldview of Naturalism, supported more by the faith of its adherents than by factual demonstration.
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Unification of Fundamental Forces
at High Radiation Temperature
in the Creator, “The Consuming Fire”
James R. Powell
Unification of the fundamental forces–gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces, possibly at the quantum level–has been the highest quest of modern physics but has not been found in a set of field equations or “theory of everything.” These diverse forces of widely varying strengths using different constants and units are not reducible to a single phenomenon at the current low temperature state of the universe. An evolutionary, big bang origin of the universe is not advocated. Nevertheless, radiation temperature is shown to be a parameter of unification, and although introduction of this concept does not end in a comprehensive unified theory, it points to unification in the Creator, the God of the universe, in His singularity conditions, beyond natural law and quantification.
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Where Is the Pre-Flood/Flood Boundary?
Michael Oard and Carl Froede, Jr.
Five discontinuity criteria have been proposed as tools in an effort to locate the pre-Flood/Flood boundary. On the basis of these criteria, a boundary has been proposed high in the Precambrian section for the eastern Grand Canyon and about midway in the Precambrian section of the eastern Mojave Desert. Examination of these criteria, based on certain assumptions of the pre-Flood world, suggests that changes should be considered for both the criteria and previously proposed boundaries. In general, the pre-Flood/Flood boundary is likely to occur lower in the strata—probably close to the top of the igneous/metamorphic basement.
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A Realistic Simulation Model for
Uranium Series Geochronological Dating
Cheng Yeng Hung
This paper presents a simulation model for uranium series geochronological dating employed in adjusting the age of the earth claimed by evolutionary scientists. The model assumes that decay half-lives have been constant throughout earth history, but introduces detailed equations to simulate diffusion and migration of radionuclide through a porous medium. Theoretically, a radiometric-dating model should be developed based on the solute transport theory, which involves tedious numerical computation. However, the traditional model imposes two crude assumptions to simplify the computational processes, even though it is known that inevitable errors may result. They are: (1) mineral deposits are confined in a closed system and no radionuclide migration can take place, and (2) the decay chain is in its “ultimate” equilibrium at the time of dating. On the other hand, the proposed simulation model calculates the age of minerals based on the solute transport theory. As such, the errors inherited in the traditional model can be minimized or avoided. The results of model verification indicate that there are excellent agreements between the simulation results and the analytical solutions for two cases: radioactive decay and diffusion. Comparison of the results indicates that the closed system assumption results in overestimation of the age of mineral when the age exceeds the “critical year.” A comparison of an existing study for a rhyolite from the Cobb Mountain, California and results from the simulation model also show the same trend.
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