Copyright © 1976,
1999 by the Creation Research Society. All rights reserved.
Volume 13, Number 1
Bristlecone Pines And Tree-Ring Dating: A Critique
Herbert C. Sorenson, Ph.D.
While the notion of telling
the age of trees by counting rings is an old one, the method has recently
come into much prominence through application to the old bristlecone
pines in the south-west. Some have claimed, for instance, that the results
would serve to settle problems in chronology, and to provide an independent
calibration for attempts to find ages from carbon 14. While the method
certainly has much promise, the author shows that, at the present, there
are very pertinent questions which have not been answered. Thus it would
be premature, at the least, to say that results supposed to be obtained
from tree rings have to be accepted, particularly if they should conflict
with Biblical evidence.
A Critique And Modification
Of Velikovsky's Catastrophic Theory Of The Solar System
J. C. Keister, Ph.D.
theory of the Solar System is briefly reviewed. One of the most serious
physical problems of his theory (i.e., that of determining a mechanism
for disposing of tremendous orbital energies) is discussed. Specifically,
gravitational interaction, electrical interaction and magnetic interaction
are each considered, and found to be inadequate to dispose of the required
amount of orbital energy.
A modification to Velikovsky's
theory is then proposed, which would permit gravitational interaction
(electrical and magnetic interactions are still far too weak) to dispose
of a far less amount of orbital energy, and still fulfill the appearance
of what Velikovsky's theory proposes.
Some theological aspects of Velikovsky's theory are discussed and it
is pointed out that whenever the theory and Scripture truly disagree,
the theory obviously must be modified. Analysis of such a theory are
worthwhile means for developing analytical tools for handling other
Amino Acid Racemization In
Larry S. Helmick, Ph.D.
The spontaneous diagenesis
which occurs after death of an organism results in hydrolysis of the
peptide bonds in proteins and racemization of the amino acid residues.
The extent of racemization of amino acids has therefore been suggested
as a potential dating method for samples containing proteins, such as
marine sediments. In order for the method to be useful, however, three
general requirements must be met: (1) the environmental conditions since
deposition must be known; (2) the experimental method must provide accurate
quantitative data concerning the extent of racemization which has occurred;
(3) the mechanism of diagenesis must be known under the environmental
conditions. The problems associated with each of these topics are discussed
in detail. The existing data are then reinterpreted in a teleological
framework and shown to be in agreement with the Genesis account of a
A Most Urgent Job For Creationists
Rev. T. Robert Ingram,
The author argues that creationists
have accomplished much in the scientific aspects of their work; now
it is necessary to consider vary seriously the political implications,
if the job is not to be left half done. Some of those political implications
are considered in some detail.
Problems In The Glacial Theory
Douglas E. Cox
The drift phenomenon around
the world have been interpreted by modern geologists in terms of the
Glacial Theory. A great many problems of a fundamental nature are involved
in this interpretation. The cause for the ice ages has not been determined.
The distribution of the drift has given rise to numerous complicated
and unlikely theories of events in the earth's past. Movement of great
ice-sheets, necessary for a distribution of the drift by ice-sheets
and for the formation of streamlined landforms in a glacial environment,
is postulated through some unknown mechanism. Mysteries abound in the
glacial explanations for drumlins, kames and eskers, the formation of
stratified drift, and ice-disintegration features. Fossils of the Quaternary
include mammals not usually associated with cold climate. All of these
factors suggest that the reality of the ice ages has not been proved.
A Creation Model For Natural
Emmett L. Williams, Ph.D.
The author here proposes
a creationist model for natural processes. In summary: natural processes
act to conserve or to degenerate. Improvement by spontaneous natural
processes acting without intelligent direction is impossible. Nature
could be viewed as a battleground for the struggle between processes
of conservation and of degeneration. It is necessary to be careful in
studying these; for processes of conservation are often mistaken for
What About The Zonation Theory
Clifford L. Burdick, D.Sc.
Some creationists, taking
it for granted that the existence of a geological column in the fossil
record is well established, have proposed the theory of zonation as
a way in which such a column could have been established in a relatively
short time. The author proposes, however, that it is not necessary to
account for the universal existence of a geological column, for it does
not exist universally. Thus Creationist Geology may be relieved of the
job of trying to account for a phenomenon which in fact does not exist
in any world-wide or universal way.
The Precision Of Nuclear
Don B. DeYoung, Ph.D.
It is commonly supposed
that radioactive isotopes decay in a strictly exponential way, so that
the process can be characterized by a half-life; and that the half-life
depends only on the isotope, not being influenced at all by surroundings.
Now both of these assumptions are challenged: it is questionable whether
the decay is always strictly exponential, and there is evidence to show
that in some cases at least the decay may be influenced by the surroundings,
or by something else external to the nuclei. The importance of this
possibility in trying to establish ages with the use of carbon 14 is
obvious; and the question is of first-rate importance to physics generally.
The Principle Of Anarchy
Howard Byington Holroyd,
The principle of anarchy
is the principle that the times, places,and amounts of energy transformations
in the world do not in general, take place according to laws of any
kind, as "law" is understood in physics. In other words, the
notion, maintained by Laplace and others, that everything is locked
in a rigid determinism, is false. Reasons are given for believing that
the generalization of experience proposed here is the correct one.
The Reign Of Law
William J. Tinkle, Ph.D.
In the study of nature,
it is easy to concentrate on the laws discovered, to the extent of forgetting
that there is anything else. The author points out that two kinds of
law, statutory and natural, are quite different. A for natural laws,
they are just observed regularities. Thus it is not reasonable to invoke
natural law, as some have done, in an attempt to eliminate the need
of a Ruler of nature. Neither does the existence of natural laws, that
is of regularities which happen usually, make the occurrence of miracles
On Methods Of Teaching Origins:
A Progress Report
John N. Moore, Ed.D.
If creation science becomes
an integral part of curriculum in both public and parochial schools,
then teachers must learn "how to do it". The author recounts
aspects of his course at the university level, and indicates how he
is aiding others to do similarly, even at the secondary level of learning.
Some Mathematical Considerations
On Radiocarbon Dating
James N. Hanson
Radiocarbon dating according
to uniformitarian presuppositions is discredited from a number of points.
These points are, (1) numerical sensitivity of the computed age on the
decay measurement, (2) improper constitutive equations, (3) prejudicial
calibration of the relation of historical and radiocarbon ages, (4)
and the failure to set the initial conditions in the light of the present
specific productivity and specific activity. For uniformitarian radiocarbon
ages, a', say less than 30,000 yr, a straight line relation between
a' and the historic age a is derived heuristically by considering the
decay of the magnetic field of the earth. This solution seems to fit
the data and shows that large a' are grossly overestimated, possibly
by a factor of five. A creationist comprehensive model for radiocarbon
And Geological Facts
R. W. Morrell
The sweeping claims made
by many evolutionists stand in stark contrast with their specific admissions.
They claim, in general terms, that evolution is well established. But
when the question is that of the origin of some particular creature,
doubts and vague speculation abound. Moreover, while they claim that
there is abundant evidence for evolution, when pressed for details they
have to admit that the fossils show gaps, not continuous variation.
As for the other alleged evidence, it is evidence only to someone already
determined to believe in evolution.
James R. Honeyman
Mt. Ararat is an extinct
volcano, and there are some signs that it erupted and built up under
water. It seems possible that this happened at the time of the Flood,
when the continents were below the sea level. At the present time the
crust of the earth is depressed in areas occupied by the northern and
southern ice caps, as is learned by tracking artificial satellites.
The weight of the two ice caps, it is suggested, would cause excessive
internal pressure in the earth; and the ocean floors being thinner than
the continents, would rupture and then be uplifted. Displaced ocean
water, added to the loads of ice, would cause the continents to sink,
further uplifting the ocean floors. Magma from the rifts would heat
the oceans, gradually melting the ice caps. Then, when the load of ice
was mostly gone, equilibrium was restored.
Descriptions Of Past Populations
Edmund W. Holroyd, III,
Several creationist writers
have discussed the growth of populations. Usually they have taken the
growth to be geometric or exponential. Then, from known facts about
present populations, they have tried to calculate back to the time of
the Flood, or of creation.
Here I shall comment mostly
on Rodabaugh's work, since it appeared recently in the Quarterly,
and had some refinements which were not found in other treatments.
If the constraints in the
treatment are arranged to make the formula fit the present populations,
and some for ancient times, say in Jacob's day, the formulae give populations
in intermediate times, say David's time or the beginning of the Christian
era, which are too low by as much as five orders of magnitude. A more
elaborate formula can fit the known figures for the Jewish population,
for instance. But the result is of little use in proving the youth of
the earth, or in finding the time of the Flood.
It is recommended, then,
that because of the discrepancies which may be introduced, that these
arguments about populations not be used in popular public lectures.
© Copyright 2001-2013, Creation
Research Society. All rights reserved.
Copyright & Permissions