Volume 22, Number 2
Volume 22, Number 2
The Retina Of The Eye - An
Evolutionary Road Block
This paper relates to the marked differences between the eyes of invertebrates and vertebrates with particular reference to retinal function and structure, the latter accentuating grave problems in their supposed evolutionary development. In image-producing eyes (Cephalopods and vertebrates) the exceedingly unlikely occurrence of two distinct and structurally contrasting retinas evolving by any non-teleological chance process is discussed. From the material presented it is concluded that omniscient Intelligence has designed and created the organs of vision as we encounter them in living organisms.
Archaeology And The Antiquity
Of Ancient Civilization: A Conflict With Biblical Chronology? - Part
Two of the pillars used in support of the conventional chronology of ancient history have been the Carbon-14 dating method and astronomical dating methods. In recent years it has been recognized that there are many problems with the C-14 method and that the results of C-14 analysis are often discarded when they do not yield expected results. Velikovsky's attempt to penetrate the secret workings of the scholastic establishment shows that not all problems of the C-14 method are technical ones. Both Velikovsky and Courville as well as other writers have exposed the weaknesses and inadequacies of the astronomical methods used to establish certain dates in Egypt's ancient history. With these two so-called "pillars" removed, the conventional chronology of ancient times loses some of its awesome sanctity and we can feel much less inhibited about considering the alternative presently worked out by Velikovsky, Courville, and others.
The only other possible source of conflict wtih Biblical chronology is th eduration of man's pre-historic periods is evolutionary bias. If we dispose of the unfounded myth that man evolved from ape-like animals over a period of millions of years, then there is no reason why the cultural developoments that occurred during the pre-historic ages could not have occurred ove a relatively short interval of time.
Origin Of The Kaibab Squirrel
Since its origin, the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River has provided an effective barrier, isolating the Kaibab squirrels on the north rim from the Abert squirrels on the south rim. The differences in these squirrels have been used as a classical example of the role of geographical isolation in evolution. This paper examines the differences in the two populations and describes the nature and extent of the isolating mechanism. It then evaluates the applicability of the violations of restrictions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium population. The study concludes that the Kabab squirrel populations should be an ideal test group for assessing the extent of changing gene frequencies across the uniformitarian time scale claimed for the formation of the Grand Canyon. Evidence is presented showing violations of all of the Hardy-Weinberg restrictions for an equilibrium population but with only minute differences between the two populations. This does not correlate well with the standard explanation for the time of formation of the isolation barrier. It is suggested that these data provide indirect evidence for a very recent origin of the Grand Canyon.
Perspectives On The Origin
The two main theories of the evolutionary origin of the mitochondria are examined. Evidence that is frequently cited to support each theory is presented to determine how well it supports each. It is concluded that most of the evidence can be fit into either scheme, and that even the best data constitute only circumstantial evidence in favor of any evolutionary origin of mitochondria.
Subparticles And Realism
In Quantum Theories
This is the first article in the series entitled Nature: The Supreme Logician. I describe how new methods in mathematical logic automatically yield the logical existence of subparticles. The necessity for subparticles follows from the most basic logical operator that produces a describable change in the behavior of a natural system. Subparticles apparently yield a mediating structure for all quantum transitions, provide an actual substratum for relativistic and cosmological theories and may be the physical basis for a pregeometry. It is shown that subparticles, their applications and their production by a describable supermind process restore a universal causality and determinancy to sytems that are describable by means of a quantum mechanical language, among others.