The Hierarchy of Conceptual
Levels For Scientific Thought And Research
Robert E. Kofahl, Ph.D.
A correct, philosophically
neutral definition of science allows scientists complete freedom in
what they believe, but requires them to function in accord with rules
of the method of science which flow logically from the definition. There
are four conceptual levels for scientific thought and research which
constitute the practice of science. These conceptual levels are explained
and related to the definition of science, to the rules of the method
of science and to the freedoms of scientists.
A Demonstration of the Mixing
Model To Account For Rb-Sr Isochrons
Larry S. Helmick, Ph.D.
and Donald P. Baumann, Ph.D.
The rubidium-strontium isotope
dating method has been used extensively for approximate age determination
of igneous rocks. Yet, this method suffers from unproven assumptions
concerning the original concentrations of isotopes in the rocks. The
isochron method appears to overcome this weakness. Nevertheless, the
isochron method is not the only possible explanation of the isotopic
data, and it is clearly invalid in many cases. Another concept, the
mixing model, has been introduced which appears to be a valid explanation
for a large portion of the isotopic data. It might be considered, therefore,
to be a superior scientific model. This report describes a method to
demonstrate the apparent superiority of the mixing model over the isochron
method to students interested in geochronology.