Volume 27, Number 4
Volume 27, Number 4
GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EARLY MAN
ROBERT E. GENTET
In the previous century, much was written about the finding of Tertiary Man and his artifacts. This material is little noted or discussed today when Man is viewed as having an extremely short geological history. It is time to reexamine the evidence presented by competent scientists and experts of the past century, without allowing evolutionary bias to interfere.
A NEUROCHEMICAL CREATIONIST CONCEPT BASED ON IN VITRO STUDIES OF BRAIN mRNAs OF THREE LUMBER VOLE SPECIES: Clethrionomys glareolus, Clethrionomys frater and Clethrionomys gapperi
DIMITRIJ A KUZNETSOV
I carried out a complex comparative neurochemical study of the translation machinery functioning in the brain cells of three conventionally "phylogenetically related" species of wild lumber voles (Clethrionomys glareolus, Clethrionomys frater and Clethrionomys gapperi). I found that the cytoplasm of vole brain cells contains one or more oligonucleotide (oligoribonucleotide) factors with molecular weight below 1.0 KD which are capable of the complete and highly selective inhibition of translation directed by mRNAs which are species-specific templates isolated from analogical tissue (brain) of these so-called "closely related" organisms. This phenomenon was found for the first time using a special cell-free translation system (CFTS) of very different variants of composition consisting of the following main components: (1) post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS); (2) total cytoplasmic poly(A) + mRNA or a species-specific poly(A) + mRNA isolated from the PMS by affinity chromatography on columns with the anti-mRNA1-Fab-(CNBr)-Sepharose, or purified 9S globin or 11S histone specific mRNAs, respectively, and (3) a few samples of the CFTS containing the addition of high or low molecular weight cytosolic compounds isolated from S150 fraction by ultrafiltration in Diaflo UM2 membranes with an exclusion limit of 1.0 KD. All CFTS components listed were isolated separately from the brain tissue of each organism studied. A new complex way for constructing and using the CFTS provided enough evidence to suggest the existence of one or more special, and as yet uncharacterized, cytoplasmic oligoribonucleotide factors which efficiently block the cytoplasmic expression of "evolutionally renovated parts" of the genome. These factors seem to be powerful enough to suppress the translation of every mRNA template that is not part of the cell type containing the cytoplasmic suppressors mentioned. Thus they would block the translation of any "novel" mRNA molecules that might have arisen as a result of spontaneous nonlethal gene mutations. This is a case in which gene expression is blocked at the level of mRNA function in the cytoplasm. The origins implications of this finding are discussed.
THE EYE: BY CHANCE OR INTELLIGENCE
H. S. HAMILTON
This article presents some of the obstacles encountered when natural selection, acting on chance mutations, attempts to account for the origin of the organs of vision in the almost limitless number of creatures throughout nature today. Information and intelligence rather than chance were the essential ingredients in sight manifestation.
POSSIBLE VARIABILITY IN
A REVIEW OF CRSQ WRITINGS
EMMETT L. WILLIAMS
A selected bibliography and brief discussion of creationist writings on limited variability in the biological world is presented.
WHAT IS A SPECIES?
A number of examples are given to show that there is no definition of the term "species" applicable to resolve questionable cases. Taxonomists disagree among themselves and change their minds as to what is a species and how many there are in various genera. As an evidence of evolution, taxonomy has a problem with gaps similar to the problem in the fossil record. Hereditary changes within species may represent "natural selection" but not evolution. Since the term species cannot be adequately defined it is not proper to say that creationists believe each species was created separately.
IS MORE THAN GENE ACTION REQUIRED TO ACCOUNT FOR VARIATION?
LESTER J. MCCANN
Embryo cells move about on their own while fashioning the architecture of the developing embryo. This demonstrates that the functioning of the cell may not be solely the result of gene action. The ability of embryo cells to react creatively to any unchartable impediments bolsters this conclusion. A different source of directive control of cellular activity needs to be recognized, one that exceeds the limitations of genes in terms of originative activity. We find that any aggregative construction requires an intelligence input. Without it, only chaos and disintegration results. It is therefore appropriate that we assign an intelligence determinant to the cell. The cell not only constructs itself, but embryo cells working together construct the multi-celled organism. Cellular intelligence is defined as the ability to select, control and direct energy. Cellular intelligence works in a copartnering arrangement with gene action. With this dual factor paradigm, in order to get phenotypic changes of sufficient scope to fuel an evolutionary agenda, two sets of changes must accrue: one genetic and the other intelligence-related. The chances for phenotypic alterations of a magnitude and specificity capable of producing organic evolution is thus more difficult to visualize. Stasis becomes easier to envision, particularly in terms of fundamental changes.