in the Molecular Basis for Variation
L. Anderson, Ph.D.
variation is a result of the genetic information contained on the chromosome
of the cell. For evolutionary change (horizontal change) to occur, there
must be a change in this genetic information. The discovery of introns
and exons on the chromosome of "higher" eukaryotic cells has
suggested these cells may contain far more genetic information than
previously realized. Despite evolutionary suggestions that introns allow
for greater variation that ultimately leads to evolutionary change,
the cell is actually less capable of undergoing such a change. The potential
ramifications for evolutionary change are devastating.
in the Interpretation of Variation Within the Fossil Record
J. Major, M.Sc.
evolutionary theory, the fossil record is supposed to show the development
of life over long periods of time. However, construction of evolutionary
phylogenies often depends on conclusions drawn from fossil morphology
alone. With more detailed morphologic analyses, with comparisons of
fossils to living species, and with genetic analyses of both fossil
and living representatives, large-scale changes and unequivocal transitions
are difficult to perceive. Using several recent studies, this lack of
change is attributed to limits on variation through time and among similar
L. Marsh, Ph.D.
A review is
made of known factors, both nonhereditary and hereditary, in the production
of new varieties among plants and animals. The origin of these new varieties
within basic types is most obvious, but since Creation Week, the production
of new basic types of organisms apparently has never occurred.
Oxygen and Fracture Healing
C. McLeod, M.D.
evidence offers beneficial effects for living systems involving hyperbaric
oxygen. New findings imply that past environmental conditions may have
better supported life here on Earth. Reviewed here is an investigation
in early fracture healing with hyperbaric oxygen exposure. Also, biblical
implications are discussed.
Proteins: Chaos or Logos
A. Kaufmann, Ph.D.
of this paper is to explore whether undirected, randomized energy through
physicochemical laws (Chaos) could make functional proteins necessary
for cellular life. Both downhill and uphill work are explained. These
two types of work are further explained as thermal entropy work and
configuration entropy work. The four requirements for making a single
functional protein of living systems are as follows: use of only left-handed
amino acids, use of only peptide bonds, linking of amino acids in correct
order and prevention of other organic molecules joining the chain. Random
methods (Chaos) violate all these requirements. Therefore, the correct
three-dimensional structure of functional proteins cannot be developed
by undirected physicochemical laws which do not perform configuration
entropy work. It is clear that there needs to be an outside intelligent
agent (Logos) to fulfill these requirements. An unbiased observer would
have great difficulty denying the rationality of inferring from the
complexity of functional proteins and a living cell the activity of
a "Logos" which is the prime component of the creation model.