A Theory for the Volcanic Origin of Radioactive
Shales and Clays: Examples from the Southeastern United States.
Carl F. Froede, Jr., B.S., P.G.
An explanation is offered, within the young-earth
Flood model, for the origin of radioactive shales and clays via the
alteration of volcaniclastic material (ash deposits) which contain radioactive
elements. This is based on the similarity of radioactive elements identified
as leaching from altered volcanic ash deposits in the western United
States. The Southeastern United States has many marine organic rich
"black" shales, massive clays, and sandstone layers which
contain radioactive elements at levels significantly higher than the
surrounding strata. The radioactivity associated with those clastics
is derived from several radioactive isotopes including uranium (234U),
thorium (232Th), potassium (40K), and radium (226Ra). Two specific stratigraphic
units, the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and various clay units within
the massive clastic deposits of the Hawthorn Group of west central Florida,
are proposed as examples where radioactive volcaniclastics have altered
in-situ to yield radioactive shales, clays.
"Observations of Fossil Material and Charcoalized
Wood in the Dakota Formation in Colorado and Wyoming
Edmond W. Holroyd, III, Ph.D.
The plant and trace fossils of Dinosaur Ridge, Morrison,
Colorado, are given further descriptions. Most of the plant fossils
in this outcrop of the Dakota Formation are in the form of broken pieces
of charcoal or as casts, which often record the wood grain. Charcoal
fragments mixed within the sand are interpreted as being deposited under
catastrophic conditions. Rocks containing the charcoal along bedding
planes are interpreted as being deposited under conditions slow enough
to allow buoyancy to separate the plant matter from the rock detritus.
Charcoal fragments were also present in the upper
third of the Dakota Formation in the local region near Dinosaur Ridge,
at Canon City, Montrose, and Fort Collins, Colorado, and at Newcastle,
Wyoming. The charcoal appears to be catastrophically deposited in the
region of Dinosaur Ridge and at Newcastle. Further observations and
research may fit these widespread deposits into the middle to upper
part of Flood strata.
Catastrophism and Modern Geology: Modeling the
Placer Generation Process
Alexander V. Lalomov, Ph.D. and Serguei E. Tabolitch
We present a mathematical model for coastal submarine
placer (CSP) generation under lateral coastal drift conditions. We test
the model against field data and propose a method of predicting CSP
parameters which has possible economic application for locating placer
deposits. The model provides a method to estimate the time and rate
of CSP formation. The model yields an age for a tin-bearing sediment
in northeastern Siberia to be less than 40,000 years. This estimate
is approximately 1000 times less than age given by the standard evolutionary
geology time scale. A logical extension of this work is to two and three
dimensions. This would make possible more detailed comparison of the
models with field data and produce improved methods for estimating placer
The Sands of Time: A Biblical Model of Deep Sea-Floor
Larry Vardiman, Ph.D.
Modern evolutionism requires that the earth be very
old. One line of evidence cited is the length of time required to deposit
the observed thickness of sea-floor sediments far from any direct continental
source. Using the low current depositional rates results in a minimum
age of tens of millions of years. The model of deposition presented
in this paper differs from the conventional model primarily in the rate
of deposition, which is asserted to have peaked at an enormous level
during and after the biblical Flood and is presumed to have fallen at
an exponential rate to the present low level. Because biblical evidence
strongly supports a short historical period between the Flood and the
present, the shape of the decay curve is very steep. Data from the Deep-Sea
Drilling Project (DSDP) were reinterpreted for this paper. By estimating
the thickness of sediment corresponding to this interval and asserting
a set of boundary conditions, an analytical model is presented that
estimates the age of sediment from a particular depth at a given borehole.
If the modern evolutionary model of deposition is
correct, the water temperature evidenced by fossils would show only
small, random variations. If a catastrophic event such as the Flood
occurred, temporary warming of the water immediately after the catastrophe
should have occurred and may be detectable. Fossil evidence of water
temperature at the time of deposition is believed by some researchers
to correlate with the ratio of oxygen isotopes of mass 16 and 18. Because
foraminifera are common in both present-day and ancient sediments and
contain oxygen in their carbonate skeletal remains, they are often analyzed
for the oxygen isotope ratio and an inferred water temperature is calculated.
Based on DSDP data from selected boreholes, and plotted on a time scale
modified by the analytical model derived in this paper, a general cooling
trend appears plausible from the limited dataset.
An Introduction to Modern Uniformitarian and Catastrophic
Plate Tectonic Concept
John K. Reed, Ph.D.; Chris B. Bennett, B.S.;
Carl R. Froede, Jr., B.S., P.G.; Michael J. Oard, M.S.; and
John Woodmorappe, M.S.
Within the last 35 years, a revolution in geology
has occurred through the advent, acceptance, and application of the
unifying geodynamic theory of plate tectonics. Acceptance of plate tectonics
followed the development of post-World War II geophysical datasets.
The concept has proven popular both in and out of the geologic profession,
as evidenced by its ubiquitous presence in earth science teaching at
all levels, and its presentation in popular media. Plate tectonic interpretations
are not restricted to uniformitarian geology. Recent publications advocate
derivative catastrophist interpretations of plate tectonics.
Catastrophist and uniformitarian interpretations
share many premises and conclusions. Therefore a concise analysis of
more voluminous evidence for and against uniformitarian plate tectonics
can be used as a shortcut to assess the credibility of catastrophic
plate tectonics. Ongoing questions regarding uniformitarian plate tectonics
offer reasons for skepticism of catastrophic plate tectonics until a
more thorough evaluation is complete.
A Biblical Christian Framework for Earth History
Research: Part IIFoundation and Method of Historical Analysis
within the Biblical Christian System
John K. Reed, Ph.D.
Although the naturalist-uniformitarian system and
its derivative view of earth history are demonstrably invalid, a biblical
Christian substitute is not logically a de facto replacement. It must
first succeed at the points of failure of the naturalist system. In
this paper I attempt to show that the biblical Christian system is successful
in passing these tests as it demonstrates internal consistency in developing
a framework within which historical analysis can take place. Additionally,
the epistemological framework of the system is shown to integrate geological
models of earth history, separable from the system, in a comprehensive
approach to historical analysis.
The Enigma of Sex and Evolution
Jerry Bergman, Ph.D.
A severe problem for evolution theory is to explain
the evolution of sexual reproduction and behavior. The theories proposed
include dual evolution, i.e., the sexes evolved separately but greatly
influenced each others evolution. Another major theory is sexual
selection, a process by which organisms directly influence each others
evolution. The creationist model proposes that the sexes were designed
to be physically and mentally compatible with each other, and for humans
a harmonious physical and mental relationship will result if the couple
lives in harmony with the physical and mental constraints of this design.