New Guinea Communities
and the Migration Dispersion Model
The origin of the peoples
of New Guinea is a subject of dispute among anthropologists. Regardless
of their origin, New Guineans in the past have tended to isolate themselves
in small groups which have become diversified both linguistically and
genetically. R. Daniel Shaw compiled data on the ABO, MNS and Rh blood
groups for natives of New Guinea in 37 areas spread over the entire
island in an attempt to discover any relationships that might aid in
correlating these genetic data, (31) and which might provide some basis
for postulating how these diverse groups arose.
Although the data are insufficient
to validate any theory, Shaw maintained that his data supported a Migration-Dispersion
model for the origin of these New Guinea population groups. According
to this model, as individuals migrate in small numbers from a common
gene pool, the new group becomes more distinct than the source group.
This is so because new generations come from only a limited gene pool
and are isolated from the normalizing effect of interbreeding within
a large gene pool where all genetic factors are available. Genetic traits
peculiar to the group are thus rapidly and strongly expressed because
of a high degree of inbreeding.
It is postulated that "Papua-Melanesians"
migrated to New Guinea in relatively large numbers. After settling on
the coasts of what was probably an uninhabited island, population growth
forced these people to migrate up river valleys and into the highlands.
These groups became reproductively isolated from one another due to
geographic, linguistic and cultural barriers. This gave rise to populations
that were genetically diverse from one another, since each migratory
group had carried with it only a fraction of the total gene pool.
While evolutionists generally
propose that the origin of races required gradual processes over a vast
length of time, creationists postulate that a process similar to the
one above could have caused the origin of races in a short period of
time. The rapid dispersion that took place following the confusion of
tongues at Babel (32) would have resulted in the isolation of relatively
small groups. Furthermore, the manner in which God bestowed various
languages among this previously monolingual human population may have
been so directed as to isolate genetically similar individuals in the
same language group.
Thus, those individuals
having a higher proportion of genes for Negroid features, or for Caucasian
features, etc., may have been given a common language. Once the race
itself was established through isolation and inbreeding, further migrations
and other isolating mechanisms, such as those described above, could
account for the diversity within each major racial group.
Pine Cone Spirals and
the Fibonacci Series
A curious, but seldom observed,
pattern runs through much of nature. (33,34) The reproduction of male
bees, the number of spiral floret formations visible in many sunflowers,
spiraled scales on pine cones and pineapples, the arrangement of leaves
on twigs, and many other structures fit the Fibonacci series. This series,
developed by the Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, also known
as Fibonacci (1170-1230), is 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . . , with
each number the sum of the two previous numbers. Harry Wiant's study
of the cones of the major southern pines confirmed that, almost without
fail, the number of spirals around the cones at a selected point, to
the right and left, were adjacent numbers in the Fibonacci series. (34)
Some exhibited counts of
5 and 8, others of 3 and 5. Preliminary studies indicated that approximately
50% of the cones give the maximum count to the right and 50% show the
maximum to the left. Wiant suggested that these patterns in nature,
in both the plant and animal world, rather than reflecting a random
evolutionary process, are indicative of the design of a Creator-God.
Stability of Bacterial
Basic to the orthodox evolutionary
model is the belief that the population of an organism is constantly
undergoing change due to mutations and pressures brought on by changes
in the environment. Jerry Moore studied a pure culture of _Proteus mirabilis_,
a bacterial species belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family of the
Eubacteriales order, which he had isolated from a clinical source, in
order to determine its stability or variability over a period of time
under markedly different conditions. (35)
The organism was serially
transferred onto 10 randomly-selected laboratory media and the cultures
were held at temperatures ranging from 20-37C. for a period of three
months. The conditions of culture and incubation were thus quite varied,
yet remaining favorable enough at times for hundreds of bacterial generations
to occur. After 62 serial transfers, 30 biochemical and antibiotic sensitivity
characteristics had not changed from those initially observed, except
for a minimal and variable response to Penicillin G. The variable response
to the latter may have been due to cell wall damage from exposure of
the bacteria to noxious components in the culture media rather than
to exposure to Penicillin G.
Moore's experiment, although
admittedly limited in scope and duration, does support a natural biologic
stability. In his paper, Moore reviewed some examples in the scientific
literature of tremendous biologic stability, including a study which
indicated that a bacterium had retained its rigid biological characterization
during the 150 years it has been subject to investigation.
As mentioned earlier in
this article, fundamental to evolutionary thinking is the concept that
new varieties within each species are constantly arising via mutations
or other genetic variations. The genetic variants that arise by these
processes, due to differences in viability, fertility, etc., contribute,
via reproduction, differentially to the gene pool of subsequent generations,
some leaving more offspring than others.
Those that reproduce a larger
proportion of offspring which, in turn live to reproduce in larger numbers,
are said to be the most fit. They are said to have been selected by
nature, and the evolutionary process is thus a process of mutation with
Another concept that is
fundamental to evolutionists is the belief that these minor changes,
or micromutations, accumulate in such a way that one basic kind of an
organism can change into a basically different kind of an organism,
and simple organisms will change or evolve into more complex organisms.
Creationists recognize that
all organisms have an ability to vary, but they insist that all empirical
evidence indicates that this ability is restricted within relatively
narrow limits, and that there is no evidence that one kind of an organism
has ever arisen from a basically different kind of an organism. They
further believe that this ability to produce normal variants (distinguished
from pathological variants) was built into each kind by the Creator
to enable each kind to survive under a great variety of conditions,
and thus to be perpetuated even though conditions may change. Creationists
are interpreting biological data according to this concept rather than
within evolutionary concepts.
Galapagos Island Finches
Darwin and other evolutionists
have supposed that the varieties of finches now living in the Galapagos
Islands, a group of islands lying 600 miles and more west of South America,
have arisen from migrants from South America. The original migrants,
it is believed, were more or less uniform, but mutation with natural
selection has given rise over a long period of time to finches that
now inhabit the various islands and which possess differences (mainly
in size and shape of the bill) in response to variations in the type
of food supply found on the several islands.
Creationists interpret these
data in much the same way, with some important exceptions. They point
out, first of all, that the variation that has apparently occurred among
these finches is very limited, for these finches are not only still
birds, but they are still finches. Neither the molecule-to-man idea
of evolution, nor the idea that basically different kinds of birds,
such as ducks, hummingbirds, and vultures, have arisen from a common
ancestor is supported by such evidence.
Secondly, creationists believe
that the genetic potential, or gene pool, carried to the Galapagos Islands
by the migrant finches from South America was sufficient to permit the
variation that has occurred. This variability did not arise via mutations,
but the potential was already present in the original migrants, which
diverged into various forms as a result of the chance arrangement of
their original variability potential (the fact that this variability
potential existed was not by chance!).
Finally, as the study of
these finches by Walter Lammerts (36) showed, the actual divergence
that has occurred among these finches is considerably more limited than
represented in much of evolutionary literature. Dr. Lammerts studied
the large collection of Galapagos Island finches (sometimes called "Darwin's
finches") at the California Academy of Science. He particularly
noted: 1) the length of each bird from tip of bill to end of tail, 2)
the height from belly to top of back, 3) total length of bill, and 4)
width of the ventral side of the lower mandible of the bill.
These finches have been
classified into four genera, Geospiza, Camarhynchus, Cactospiza,
and Certhidea. Those studied by Lammerts bore 17 different species
labels. While Lammerts held that the Certhidea, or Warbler finches,
are distinctive from the other genera, he stated that the four species
within this genera are hardly more than color variations, and should
be placed in a single group with species rank rather than genus rank.
Lammerts further observed that if all the species labels were removed
from the remainder of the Galapagos Island finches and they were arranged
according to body and bill size, complete intergradation would be found.
The same is true of bill length and width and plumage coloration.
Lammerts noted that the
range in variation among these finches, although they are classified
into several genera and many species, is exactly comparable to the variation
found within a single species of song sparrow, Melospiza melodia.
He further pointed out that these finch "genera" are in no
way comparable in distinction to the genera Rosa (roses), Frageria
(strawberries), and Pyrus (pears), members of the family Rosaceae.
Lammerts considered that
it would be much more realistic to classify these finches into a single
species. He also emphatically rejected the idea that the variations
in size of bill are "adaptive divergences" resulting from
natural selection. Present feeding habits, Lammerts emphasized, are
the result of the particular types of bills which happened to
occur among these birds, rather than the bills developing slowly as
an adaptation to differences in the types of food available.
Crowding and Reproductive
Rates in Planaria
E. N. Smith has reported
on his study of the effect of crowding on asexual reproduction of the
planaria Dugesia dorotocephala. (37) As Smith pointed out, there
are two possible mechanisms for regulating population densities. Individuals
within a population might reproduce maximally near their physiological
limit, with the population density being regulated by negative outside
forces (predation, disease, starvation, etc.). Those individuals which
are better able to compete against these outside forces and reproduce
more offspring are said to be more fit and thus to be selected. Alternately,
the individuals within a population might possess some internal regulating
force which in some way regulates population density and maintains a
form of density homeostasis.
prefer the former view. Natural selection is said to favor the individuals
that can leave the most reproducing offspring. On the other hand, if
the alternate view is correct, there would be no real competition between
populations and no selection. The postulated cause of the evolutionary
process would fail.
The freshwater planaria,
Dugesia dorotocephala, reproduce asexually by fissioning. Smith
maintained the planaria in identical containers, and conditions in each
experiment were the same in each container, except the population density
was maintained at different levels. Smith found that crowding clearly
reduced the fissioning rate of the planaria. This reduction did not
appear to be due to slime, oxygen depletion or carbon dioxide build-up,
but appeared to be due to some water-soluble inhibitor produced by the
The planaria thus appeared
to have a built-in density-dependent reproduction regulatory mechanism.
Smith postulated that these creatures (and other animals) regulate their
own numbers without the necessity of outside forces such as predation,
starvation, and disease. He pointed out that built-in density dependent
reproduction rates were mandatory after creation and before the fall,
and that it is quite conceivable that living organisms had a mechanism
for regulating their numbers without intervention of external conditions
such as predation, starvation and disease.
Plant Succession Studies
Walter Lammerts and George
Howe used plant succession studies to observe the effect of natural
selection under widely divergent conditions. (38) Repeated field analyses
were made of variation in five plant species populations including the
California poppy, lupine, thistle sage, owl's clover, and a yellow pansy,
representing five different plant families. Observations were made over
a period of five growing seasons at staked localities in the vicinities
of Newhall and Corralitos, California.
Despite great variation
in annual precipitation during the study, no gradual shifts or evolutionary
trends were evident. The natural selection observed actually restricted
the amount of variation, bringing populations back to a typical or normal
form during years of moisture stress. Lammerts and Howe concluded that
these studies indicated no evidence for natural selection of the type
required by evolution theory.
Origin of the great range
in variation found in many species of plants were discussed. It was
the conclusion of one of the authors, namely Dr. Lammerts, that plant
variations were supernaturally derived from the originally small populations
of plants of the various kinds which survived the Flood. The alternative
possibility exists, however, that a sufficiently diverse gene pool within
each plant family survived the Flood to give rise to the many plant
varieties existing today. The experiments by Howe discussed in the next
article have shed some light on this question.
Seed Germination and
Plant Survival Following Submersion in Salt and Fresh Water
George Howe undertook a
study of the effect of prolonged submersion of seeds of flowering plants
in sea and fresh water as an aid in understanding bow plants were able
to survive the Flood. (39) Seeds from the fruits of five different species
and families of flowering plants were tested for germination after soaking
in sea water, fresh tap water, and an equal mixture of sea and tap water.
Soaking was continued for
a maximum of 140 days, which corresponds roughly to the 150 days during
which water prevailed upon the earth during the Flood. At intervals
of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after initiation of soaking, seeds of
each plant species were removed from the various treatments and placed
under favorable germination conditions.
Ability to survive the soaking
varied among the plant species tested, but even after a soaking period
of 140 days in each of the solutions mentioned above, seeds from three
out of the five species tested germinated and grew.
The first suggestion that
Howe made in answer to the question of plant survival during the Flood
was that many plants did not survive! He pointed out that much destruction
of plant life would be expected during a prolonged global flood and
that extinction of many species would thus be a predictive consequence
of such a flood. Paleobotanical studies have revealed that numerous
kinds of plants are found as fossils but which are not found living
Howe reviewed several other
mechanisms for plant survival during the Flood in addition to resistance
to soaking by seeds. Vegetation, including trees, have been known to
have been torn away by storms and carried out to sea still embedded
in soil masses. Survival during prolonged periods of such a process
would be possible.
Plant material has been
known to have been transported while embedded in icebergs. Seeds that
were contained in the carcasses of dead birds floating in sea water
have been known to germinate and grow. No doubt many seeds would have
been carried on the ark, as well.
From his data and those
of others, Howe concluded that a variety of mechanisms were available
to account for the survival of plants during the Flood.
Flora and Fauna of the
John Klotz visited the Galapagos
Islands, made famous by Darwin, and has published an extremely interesting
review of the plants and animals which now inhabit these islands, particular
attention being given to finches, tortoises, cacti, and iguanas. (40)
About a half dozen of these
islands measure 10 to 20 miles across, and one, Albemarle, is 80 miles
along. Mountains on these islands rise 2,000 to 3,000 feet above sea
level, the highest point being 4,000 feet on Albemarle. Generally the
islands are arid and the landscape harsh. Inland and at higher altitudes,
there is humid forest with rich black soil and tall trees covered with
ferns, orchids, lichens, and mosses. In the very highest areas there
is open country with grass, ferns, mosses, and occasional thickets.
Floral and faunal types
are relatively few in number. The fauna include only six passerine forms
of birds and one species of cuckoo; two types of land mammals (a bat
and a rat); and five types of land reptiles, which include a giant tortoise,
a lizard, a gecko, a snake, a land iguana, and a marine iguana. There
are no amphibians. Domesticated animals have been introduced by settlers.
Klotz devoted a large section
of his paper to the finches. He stated that there seems to be no reason
to question their origin from a common ancestor. As Klotz noted, evolutionists
have generally assumed the origin of all the finch species from a single
gravid female, a single pair, or at most a very small number reaching
the islands together. Klotz discussed the suggestion of Lammerts (1966),
mentioned earlier in this paper, that migration of finches to the Galapagos
Islands might have included many pairs, although he did not seem to
favor that view.
Klotz, in contrast to Lammerts,
maintained that most of the Galapagos Island finch species are actual
species rather than mere varieties. There seems to be good evidence
on each side, although Lammerts presented some especially convincing
evidence. Klotz believes there is no reason to doubt that new species
arise or that new species of finches actually did arise on the Galapagos
Klotz emphasized that origin
of species is comparatively only a minor problem for evolutionists.
Finches are still finches and there is no evidence of the changes in
magnitude required for macroevolution, that is, increase in complexity
with origin of one basic kind from another. He thus asserted that the
evidence presented by the fauna and flora of the Galapagos Islands did
not constitute any real support for amoeba-to-man evolution.
Taxonomy is the science
of classification of plants and animals. It is obvious that there are
recognizable groups of organisms in the present world which have many
similar characteristics. Such groups have always existed as evidenced
both by the fossil record and the Genesis reference to "kinds."
The father of taxonomy, Carolus Linnaeus, was a strong believer in creation,
and believed, as do modern creationists, that similarities among organisms
exist not because of their origin from a common ancestor but because
God based His creation on a complex of plans with an underlying thread
Wayne Frair's approach to
taxonomic studies avoids evolutionary presuppositions, his assumption
being that the world of life is to be viewed as having risen from certain
stem organisms which constitute the original "kinds" mentioned
in Genesis. He views the problem of grouping organisms within the kinds
and of establishing relationships among the kinds to be the proper function
Frair's interests as a biologist
have included serology and herpetology. He combined elements of both
in his taxonomic studies, utilizing antibodies to the serum of turtles
as an aid in establishing the taxonomic relationship of these turtles.
(41) He injected the blood sera of the turtles into rabbits or chickens
in order to establish antibodies to the serum proteins. The antibody-containing
serum, or antiserum, was obtained from the rabbits or chickens and mixed
with serial dilutions of the serum from the various turtles. The sera
from closely related turtles would be expected to give a strong cross-reaction,
while sera from distantly related turtles would cross-react weakly or
not at all (a cross-reaction is said to be obtained if antiserum generated
by injection of serum of species A also reacts, or gives a precipitate,
with serum from species B).
Frair's studies did not
support the widely held view that snapping turtles belong to a separate
family related to the Kinosternidae, but rather should be placed within
the Emydid family group. Such a switch is probably minor enough to pose
no problem for the evolutionary biologists. Creationists maintain, of
course, that taxonomic classification should be established without
reference to a supposed evolutionary origin or phylogeny, but should
be based strictly on degree of similarity.
Many papers have been published
in the CRS Quarterly which were concerned with the relationship
of the laws of thermodynamics to the creation-evolution problem. Emmett
Williams, in his most recent paper on this subject, presented an excellent
review of the papers on this subject. (42) To review these papers here,
or even to review in detail Dr. Williams' outstanding series of papers
on this subject (43-46) would exceed the scope of this paper. To omit
any mention of this work from the present paper, however, even though
such work did not involve collection of any new and original data as
such, would be a serious omission. I will, therefore, briefly review
Williams' series of papers.
Those who hold to the general
evolution model postulate that the present universe and all that it
contains began in some primordial disordered state. Evolutionary forces
have been at work throughout the billions of years since that state
existed, it is believed, and have acted in such a way that the highly
structured universe and a vast array of incredibly complex organisms
have arisen here on the earth. Thus, there has occurred, according to
this thinking, at least in the observable part of our universe and particularly
on the earth, an immense increase in order and complexity. This supposedly
has taken place solely according to mechanistic, naturalistic processes
which can be attributed to properties inherent in matter.
If the above were true,
then matter obviously must have possessed an inherent ability for organization
into higher and higher levels of order and complexity. Scientists should
have been able to recognize this universal inherent property of matter
and to construct natural laws which describe it. As a matter of fact,
scientists have not been able to recognize any such property
However, scientists have
recognized just the opposite tendency in matter. The more probable state
of matter is always the more random state. Every change in nature that
takes place spontaneously always results in a loss of
order. Natural processes always occur in such a way that the complex
tend to become less complex, ordered states tend to become disordered.
Therefore, this universe is constantly becoming more disordered.
This tendency is so universal
and so unfailing it can be expressed as a law - the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
The operation of the natural forces which has resulted in man's description
of these forces in the form of the Second Law of Thermodynamics has
a number of consequences, and thus the Second Law may be defined in
several ways. These consequences include the loss of usable energy,
the loss of order, and the loss of information. The Second Law may thus
be defined in several ways so as to emphasize these several consequences.
In discussions of this Law and its relationship to the creation-evolution
problem, the loss of order and information consequences are usually
In Williams' first paper
on this subject, (43) he discussed the operation of the Second Law from
the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics (loss of usable energy) and
the viewpoint of statistical mechanics (loss of order). Entropy is a
thermodynamic quantity which can be defined, in a non-technical sense,
as a measure of the randomness of a system - the greater the randomness
or disorder within a system the greater the entropy.
An increase in order requires
a decrease in entropy, while the reverse is true. The Second Law of
Thermodynamics is thus sometimes referred to as the law of increasing
entropy. In his first paper, which was the more technical of the series,
Williams discussed entropy and the solid state.
Following an excellent introduction,
including a thorough definition of terms and of the Second Law in thermodynamic
and statistical terms, Williams discussed the effect of entropy on the
solid state. Contrary to what is commonly believed, crystalline solids
are not structurally ordered. There are many imperfections in the lattice
structures of such solids, and these imperfections are thermodynamically
stable because the entropy of the solid is increased by their presence.
Williams emphasized that the principle of increasing entropy is opposed
to evolution and to certain aspects of ruin-reconstruction interpretations
of Genesis 1.
A simplified explanation
of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics was given in non-mathematical
language in Williams' second paper. (44) That the total amount of energy
in the universe is a constant is expressed in the First Law. Since matter
and energy are interchangeable, and therefore equivalent, everything
in the physical universe is a form of energy and neither increases nor
decreases, in perfect agreement with the Biblical pronouncement of a
finished creation. Williams explained that evolution could not have
occurred unless both the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics were
violated many times. He shows that the three arguments which are usually
offered by evolutionists to circumvent the laws of thermodynamics are
invalidated by the evidence.
In his third paper (45)
Williams asked the question, "Is the universe a thermodynamic system?"
One would have to know the answer to that question before one could
assert with authority that the laws of thermodynamics apply to the entire
universe in addition to our readily observable portion of the universe,
where these laws have been tested. Williams asserted that there is no
way scientifically to determine the extent of the universe or its thermodynamic
character at the present time.
He pointed out, however,
that statements in Scripture support the fact that the laws of thermodynamics
do apply to the entire universe. The applicability of the First Law
is asserted in Genesis 2:1-3 and in 11 Peter 3:7, and the applicability
of the Second Law is made plain in Psalms 102:25, 26, and Romans 8:20-22.
Since the universe is subject to these laws of thermodynamics, and no
matter or energy exchange can be observed, it is assumed that
the universe is an isolated thermodynamic system.
But whether the universe
is open, closed or isolated, it is definitely degenerating. No matter
what type of a thermodynamic system is chosen, the entropy of the system
always increases with the occurrence of an irreversible process. Williams
therefore asserted that evolutionists, who demand a decrease in entropy,
are in an indefensible position in the face of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
In his fourth paper (46)
Dr. Williams offered an extremely interesting and thorough consideration
of the applicability of the laws of thermodynamics to living systems.
There is a rather general impression, often stated by evolutionists,
that living systems somehow circumvent the Second Law, since the development
of a seed or fertilized egg into the adult organism seems to result
in an increase in complexity.
As Williams pointed out,
this increase in complexity is only apparent and not real. The fertilized
egg is as complex, or more so, than any cell in the growing or adult
organism. All of the information needed for the production of the adult
is present in the egg. No new information is needed or added. As a matter
of fact, almost from the moment of conception, loss of information and
order via mutations, injuries, and disease begins. This loss of order,
or the rate of increase in entropy, slows during development, but never
The rate of entropy increase
accelerates during the aging process and finally results in death, whereupon
the organism reaches its maximum entropy state - a pile of dust. If
living things circumvented the Second Law of Thermodynamics, they would
As indicated early in this
section, Williams' most recent paper (1973) on thermodynamics in the
CRS Quarterly was a review of creationist literature on the relationship
of the laws of thermodynamics to the subject of creation and evolution.
Publications by Henry M. Morris, R. E. D. Clark, D. Penny, T. G. Barnes,
George Mulfinger, Walter Lammerts, I. McDowell, Bolton Davidheiser,
G. C. Lockwood, and A. E. Wilder-Smith were cited in this respect. Dr.
Williams concluded his 1973 paper with a discussion of evolution in
the light of probability considerations, showing that evolution, on
the basis of these probability considerations alone, can be shown to
A RESEARCH CHALLENGE
In 1970, Larry Butler, then
Chairman of the Research Committee of the Creation Research Society,
issued a research challenge to creationists in the form of a list of
proposed research projects. (47) These included:
(1) Creation Research Society
is a non-profit organization incorporated in the State of Michigan.
(2) Slusher, H. S. 1966.
Supposed overthrust in Franklin Mountains, El Paso, Texas, CRSQ 3(1):59-60.
(3) Lammerts, W. E. 1966.
Overthrust faults of Glacier National Park, CRSQ 3(1):61-62.
(4) Burdick, C. L. 1969.
The Lewis overthrust, CRSQ 6(2):96-106.
(5) Burdick, C. L. and H.
S. Slusher. 1969. The Empire Mountains a thrust fault?, CRSQ 6(1):49-54.
(6) Lammerts, W. E. 1972.
The Glarus overthrust, CRSQ 8(4):251-255.
(7) Rusch, W. H., Sr. 1971.
Human footprints in rocks, CRSQ 7(4):201-213.
(8) Films for Christ, Route
2, Eden Road, Elmwood, Illinois 61249.
(9) Meister, W. J., Sr.
1968. Discovery of trilobite fossils in shod footprints of human in
"Trilobite Beds" - a Cambrian formation, Antelope Springs,
Utah, CRSQ 5(3):97-102.
(10) Burdick, C. L. 1973.
Discovery of human skeletons in Cretaceous formation, CRSQ 10(2):109-110.
(11) Cousins, F. W. 1966.
Fossil man. Evolution Protest Movement. 110 Havant Road, Stoke, Hayling
Island, Hants, England; and 1557 Arrow Road, Victoria, British Columbia,
Canada. Pp. 47-61.
(12) Burdick, C. L. 1966.
Microflora of the Grand Canyon, CRSQ 3(1):38-50.
(13) Burdick, C. L. 1972.
Progress report on Grand Canyon palynology, CRSQ 9(1):25-30.
(14) Rusch, W. H., Sr. 1968.
The revelation of palynology, CRSQ 5(3):103-105.
(15) Burdick, C. L. 1967.
Ararat - the mother of mountains, CRSQ 4(1):5-12.
(16) Coffin, H. G. 1969.
Research on the classic Joggins petrified trees, CRSQ 6(1):35-44.
(17) Gish, D. T. 1972. Acts
and Facts, 1(4):1-4. (Institute for Creation Research). 1973. Creation:
Acts, Facts, Impacts Creation-Life Publishers, San Diego), pp. 15-19.
(18) Coffin, H. G. 1974.
(in) Challenge to Education II-B. The Bible-Science Association, Caldwell,
Idaho, pp. 36-41.
(l9) Northrup, B. E. 1969.
The Sisquoc diatomite fossil beds, CRSQ 6(3) : 129-135.
(20) Peters, W. G. 1971.
The cyclical black shales, CRSQ 7(4):193-200.
(21) Nevins, S. E. 1972.
Is the Capitan limestone a fossil reef?, CRSQ 8(4):231-248.
(22) Nevins, S. E. 1974.
Post-Flood strata of the John Day Country, Northeastern Oregon, CRSQ
(23) Barnes, T. G. 1971.
Decay of the earth's magnetic moment and the geochronological implications,
(24) Barnes, T. G. 1972.
Young age vs. geologic age for the earth's magnetic field, CRSQ 9(1):
(25) Barnes, T. G. 1973.
Electromagnetics of the earth's field and evaluation of electric conductivity,
current, and joule heating in the earth's core, CRSQ 9(4):222-230.
(26) Barnes, T. G. 1973.
The origin and destiny of the Earth's magnetic field. The Institute
for Creation Research, San Diego.
(27) Lammerts, W. E. 1965.
Planned induction of commercially desirable variation in roses by neutron
radiation, CRSQ 2(1):39-43.
(28) Lammerts, W. E. 1967.
Mutations reveal the glory of God's handiwork, CRSQ 4(1):35-41.
(29) Lammerts, W. E. 1969.
Does the science of genetic and molecular biology really give evidence
for evolution?, CRSQ 6(1):5-12.
(30) Tinkle, W. J. 1971.
Pleiotropy: extra cotyledons in the tomato, CRSQ 8(3):183-185. (See
also a relevant article in this issue.)
(31) Shaw, R. D. 1972. Why
genetic variation between New Guinea communities (Migration-dispersion
model applied), CRSQ 9(3):175-180.
(32) Genesis 11: 1-9.
(33) Time (April 4, 1969),
pp. 48 and 50.
(34) Wiant, H. V. 1973.
Relation of southern pine cone spirals to the Fibonacci series, CRSQ
(35) Moore, J. P. 1974.
A demonstration of marked species stability in Enterobacteriaceae, CRSQ
(36) Lammerts W. E. 1966.
The Galapagos Island finches, CRSQ 3(1):73-79.
(37) Smith, E. N. 1973.
Crowding and asexual reproduction of the planaria, Dugesia dorotocephala,
CRSQ 10( 1 ):3-10.
(38) Lammerts, W. E. and
G. F. Howe 1974. Plant succession studies in relation to micro-evolution,
(39) Howe, G. F. 1968. Seed
germination, sea water, and plant survival in the great Flood, CRSQ
(40) Klotz, J. W. 1972.
Flora and fauna of the Galapagos Islands, CRSQ 9(1):14-22.
(41) Frair, W. 1967. Some
molecular approaches to taxonomy, CRSQ 4(1):18-22.
(42) Williams, E. L. 1973.
Thermodynamics: a tool for creationists (Review of recent literature),
(43) Williams, E. L. 1966.
Entropy and the solid state, CRSQ 3(3):18-24.
(44) Williams, E. L. 1969.
A simplified explanation of the laws of thermodynamics, CRSQ 5(4): 138-147.
(45) Williams, E. L. 1970.
Is the universe a thermodynamic system?, CRSQ 7(1):46-50.
(46) Williams, E. L. 1971.
Resistance of living organisms to the second law of thermodynamics:
Irreversible processes, open systems, creation, and evolution, CRSQ
(47) Butler, L. G. 1970.
A research challenge, CRSQ 7(2):88-89.
(48) Whitcomb, J. C. and
H. M. Morris 1964. The Genesis Flood.
Presbyterian and Reformed
Publishing Co., Philadelphia.